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Closest Campings





Amk Hranice

Pod Hůrkou 12, 753 01 Hranice
Olomouc, Olomouc Region
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Atc Morava

Petra Bezruče 795/13, 789 85 Mohelnice
Olomouc, Olomouc Region
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Autocamping Bobrovník

Bobrovník, 790 61 Lipová Lázně
Olomouc, Olomouc Region
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Autocamp Šternberk

HSTS ZO Šternberk Dolní Žleb 26 , P.O.Box 86 Šternberk 785 01
Olomouc, Olomouc Region
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Autokemp, Pension Ubytování U Loupanců

Třída Rudé Armády 446, 788 15 Velké Losiny
Olomouc, Olomouc Region
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Autokemp Štíty

Naproti Nádraží, 789 91 Štíty
Olomouc, Olomouc Region
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Bohemaland

Zlaté Hory, 793 76 Zlaté Hory
Olomouc, Olomouc Region
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Bušínov

Dolní Bušínov 196, 789 01 Zábřeh
Olomouc, Olomouc Region
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Camping Baldovec

Baldovec 319, 798 61 Rozstání Baldovec
Olomouc, Olomouc Region
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Rekreační Komplex Losinka

U Koupaliště 532, 788 14 Rapotín
Olomouc, Olomouc Region
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Šternberk

Dolní Žleb 26, 785 01 Šternberk
Olomouc, Olomouc Region
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Štíty

Nádražní, 789 91 Štíty
Olomouc, Olomouc Region
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Ubytování Mlýn

Třída Rudé Armády 1, 78815 Velké Losiny
Olomouc, Olomouc Region
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History of Olomouc

Olomouc is said to occupy a site of a Roman fort founded in the imperial period, the original name of which, Mons Julii, would have been gradually corrupted to the present form. Though this is just a legend, archaeological excavations revealed remains of a Roman military camp from the time of Marcoman Wars here.

Olomouc was an important centre of the Great Moravian Empire in the 9th and early 10th century. At a later period it was long the capital of the province of Moravia. The bishopric of Olomouc was founded in 1063, and raised to the rank of an archbishopric in 1777.

In 1306 King Wenceslaus III stopped here on his way to Poland, where he wanted to fight Wladislaus I the Elbow-high to claim his rights to Polish crown, and was assassinated. With his death the whole Přemyslid dynasty died out.

During the Thirty Years' War, in 1640, Olomouc was occupied by the Swedes for eight years. They left the city in ruins and so it ceded its position to Brno. Olomouc was then fortified by Maria Theresa during the wars with Frederick the Great, who besieged the city unsuccessfully for seven weeks in 1758. In 1848 Olomouc was the scene of the emperor Ferdinand's abdication, and in 1850 an important conference between Austrian and German statesmen called Punctation of Olmütz took place here. At the conference German Confederation was restored and Prussia submitted its leadership to the Austrians.

Largely because of its ecclesiastical links to Austria, Salzburg in particular, the city had a German influence since the Middle Ages. It is difficult assess the ethnic makeup of the town before an accurate census was taken. However, official documents from the second half of the 16th century and early 17th century reveal that the town's ecclesiastical constitution, the meetings of the Diet and the locally printed hymnal, were all in the Czech language. Also, the first treatise on music in the Czech language was published in Olomouc in the mid 16th century. The political and social changes that followed the Thirty Years War increased the influence of courtly Habsburg culture. The 'Germanification' of the town was probably more a result of the cosmopolitan environment of the town than by design. As the cultural, administrative and religious centre of the region, it drew officials, musicians and traders from all over Europe. Despite these influences, the Czech language still persisted, particularly in ecclesiastical publications throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. When the Austrian-born composer and musician Philip J. Rittler accepted a post at the Wenceslas Cathedral in the second half of the seventeenth century, he still felt it necessary to learn Czech. However, the use of the Czech language in official matters went into decline and by the 19th century, the official statistics record that the number of Germans was three times higher than the number of Czechs¹. Olomouc was enclosed with city walls almost until the end of the 19th century. This suited to the city council, because demolishing the walls would allow extending the city, which would result into settling a lot of Czechs from neighbouring villages. The city council preferred Olomouc smaller, but German. Expansion came after the WWI and establishing Czechoslovakia, when Olomouc integrated two neighbouring towns and 11 surrounding villages and thus gained new space for its growth.

There were serious tensions between the Czech and German-speaking inhabitants during both world wars (largely brought on by outside provocation). During World War II, most of the towns' German residents sided with the Nazis and the German-run town council renamed the main square after Adolf Hitler. The Czech residents changed the name again after the town was liberated. When the retreating German army passed through Olomouc in the final weeks of the war they opened fire on the town's old astronomical clock, leaving only a few pieces (that can now be seen in the local museum). The one that can be seen today is a 1950s reconstruction and features a procession of proletarians rather than saints. Most of the German-speaking population was expelled after the war as a part of the controversial Beneš decrees.

Despite its considerable charms, Olomouc has not been discovered by tourists in the same way that Prague, Český Krumlov and Karlovy Vary have. Its inner city is the second-largest historical monuments preserve in the country, after Prague.

One of Olomouc's famous sons was the film-maker Edgar G. Ulmer, who was born in Olomouc in 1904, but who always preferred to give Vienna as his birthplace, as this sounded less provincial. Last year, after months and months of digging in various archives, Bernd Herzogenrath finally was able to locate the address where Ulmer was born in Olomouc. In 1904, the address was “Resselgasse 1, Ort Neugasse.” Today, the name is Resslova 1—Ulmer finally can return to Olomouc! A memorial plaque, designed by artist Bohumil Teplý, commemorating Ulmer's birth home was unveiled on Sept 17, 2006, on the occasion of the ulmerfest 2006 - the First Academic Conference devoted to Ulmer's work (see link below). His daughter Arianné Ulmer-Cipes and her family was present at the event.


Modified: 2007-02-28 20:13:15+01
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olomouc

 


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